Major Requirements

For Fall 2020 and Spring 2021, students may elect the P/NP grading option for Economics major and prerequisite courses. Please visit Fall 2020 and Spring 2021: Economics P/NP Grading Option Policy Modifications for further details.

For all students declared in the Economics major, please visit Spring 2020: Economics Academic Policy Updates for a comprehensive overview of the adjustments made to the major requirement policies due to the COVID-19 events of Spring 2020. 

For the Economics major, all students must complete the following courses:

  • Econ 1 or 2 (or equivalent)
  • MATH 1A-1B or 16A-B (or equivalent)
  • STAT 20, STAT 21, STAT W21, STAT 88 (must complete STAT/COMPSCI/INFO C8 connector course to count STAT 88), or an approved upper division Statistics course with a calculus prerequisite (STAT 131A, STAT 135, or STAT 140 are acceptable)*
  • Econ 100A or 101A and Econ 100B or 101B (or equivalents including UGBA 101B**)
  • Econ 140 or 141
  • Five upper division electives courses taken within the Economics Department at UC Berkeley or coursework from other sources approved by the Economics Department, preferably in advance.

UGBA 101A cannot be used for the Econ major - no exceptions.

*Effective Fall 2019, STAT 140 or STAT 135 may be used to fulfill the statistics prerequisite for the Economics major. Starting Spring 2020, STAT/COMPSCI/INFO C8, STAT 134, and IEOR 172 will no longer be used to meet the Statistics prerequisite for the Economics major. Find more details below:

• Grades earned in STAT/COMPSCI/INFO C8, STAT 134, or IEOR 172 in Fall 2019 and prior will be included in the GPA calculation for admission into the major.
• Grades earned in STAT/COMPSCI/INFO C8, STAT 134, or IEOR 172 in Spring 2020 and later will not be included in the GPA calculation to determine admission into the major. 
• Changed approved May 1, 2019. See Economics Major Admissions: Statistics Prerequisite FAQ.
For further information regarding admission to the Economics major, please visit
All major courses must be taken for a letter grade.
Students completing double majors or simultaneous degrees are only allowed to overlap a maximum of TWO upper division courses. This includes micro and/or macro economics.
Students can take no more than TWO courses from outside the Economics Department at Berkeley to count towards the upper division requirements of the Economics major.
The Economics major GPA includes the 3 upper division core courses (ECON 100A/101A, ECON 100B/101, and ECON 140/141) and 5 upper division electives. If ECON H195B is taken, it must count as one of the five electives. If more than 5 upper division electives are completed, the department will automatically count the 5 highest grades.
Please email for additional information.


Microeconomic Theory (Econ 100A or Econ 101A)
Macroeconomic Theory (Econ 100B, Econ 101B, or UGBA 101B**)
Econometrics (Econ 140 or Econ 141)


City and Regional Planning 113A**   Economic Analysis for Planning (approved Spring 2018)
City and Regional Planning 113B**   Community and Economic Development
City and Regional Planning 160**     The Origins and Practice of Community Development (approved Fall 2020)
Economics C102   (also listed as ENVECON C102) Natural Resource Economics 
Economics C103   (also listed as Math C103) Introduction to Mathematical Economics 
Economics 104   Advanced Microeconomic Theory
Economics 105   History of Economic Thought
Economics 106   Advanced Macroeconomics
Economics C110   (also listed as Political Science C135, Political Science W135, or Economics N110) Game Theory in the Social Sciences --Students will receive no credit for Econ c110/PS c135 after taking Econ 104.
Economics 111   Applied Mechanism Design
Economics 113   U.S. Economic History
Economics 115   The World Economy in the Twentieth Century  -- Economics 115 and History 160 are credit exclusive. Students will not receive credit for both courses
Economics 119   Psychology and Economics
Economics 121   Industrial Organization and Public Policy
Economics 122   Industrial Organization Seminar
Economics 123   Government Regulation of Industry
Economics 124   Special Topics in Industrial Organization
Economics C125   (also listed as ENVECON C101) Environmental Economics
Economics 131   Public Economics
Economics 132   Seminar in Public Sector Economics
Economics 133   Global Inequality and Growth
Economics 134   Macroeconomic Policy from the Great Depression to Today
Economics 135   Economic Growth in Historical Perspective
Economics 136   Financial Economics (Students will receive no unit credit for ECON 136 after taking UGBA 103. Students may earn unit credit for UGBA 103 after taking ECON 136, but note that UGBA 103 does not count as an elective for the Economics major, see "Shuttered upper division electives" below).  --Effective summer 2013, students who take ECON 136 and/or ENGIN 120 will receive Economic elective credit only for the first course completed.
Economics 137   Aggregate Economics Seminar
Economics 138   Financial and Behavioral Economics
Economics 139   Intermediate Financial Economics
Economics C142   (also listed as Pub Pol C142 & PoliSci C131A) Applied Econometrics and Public Policy
Economics 144   Financial Econometrics 
Economics 151   Labor Economics
Economics 152   Wage Theory and Policy
Economics 153   Labor Economics Seminar
Economics 154   Economics of Discrimination
Economics 155   Urban Economics
Economics 155A   Cities and Public Policy
Economics 157   Health Economics
Economics 161   Economics of Transition: Eastern Europe
Economics 162   The Chinese Economy
Economics C171   (also listed as ENVECON C151) Economic Development 
Economics 172   Case Studies in Economic Development
Economics 173   Economic Development Seminar
Economics 174   Global Poverty and Impact Evaluation
Economics C175   (also listed as Demography C175) Economic Demography 
Economics C181   (also listed as ENVECON C181) International Trade -- Economics c181 and UGBA 118 are considered by the university to be equivalent courses. Students will not receive credit for both courses;
Economics 182   International Monetary Economics
Economics 183   International Economic Seminar
Economics C184   (also listed as ENVECON C132) International Environmental Economics (new Fall 2020)
Economics 190   Economics Seminar (topics vary)
Economics 191   Topics in Economics Research 
Economics 196   Topics in Economics 
Engineering 120**   Principles of Engineering Economics  --Effective summer 2013, students who take Econ 136, UGBA 103, and/or Engin 120 will receive Economic elective credit only for the first course completed.
ENVECON 131**   Globalization and the Natural Environment
ENVECON 141**   Agricultural and Environmental Policy (approved Fall 2019)
ENVECON 143**   Economics of Innovation and Intellectual Property
ENVECON 145**   Health and Environmental Economic Policy (approved Fall 2013)
ENVECON 152**   Advanced Topics in Development and International Trade (approved fall 2015)
ENVECON 153**   Population, Environment, and Development (approved Fall 2020)
ENVECON 162**   Economics of Water Resources (approved Fall 2015)
ENVECON C176 ** (also listed as IAS C176 and ENERES C176) Climate Change Economics (approved Spring 2018)
History 133A**  History of American Capitalism (approved Spring 2019)
History 159A**  European Economic History
History 159B**   European Economic History
History 160**   International Economy of the 20th Century -- Economics 115 and History 160 are credit exclusive. Students will not receive credit for both courses
Legal Studies 145**   Law and Economics I
Legal Studies 147**   Law and Economics II
Philosophy 141**   Philosophy and Game Theory
UGBA 118**   International Trade  -- Economics c181 and UGBA 118 are considered by the university to be equivalent courses. Students will not receive credit for both courses
UGBA 131**   Corporate Finance and Financial Statement Analysis
UGBA 132**   Financial Institutions and Markets
UGBA 133**  Investments
UGBA 136F**  Behavioral Finance (approved spring 2016)
UGBA 180**   Real Estate and Urban Land Economics


Shuttered Upper Division Electives: These courses no longer count for the Economics major per the notation below.

Public Health 126**   Introduction to Health Economics and Public Policy (valid elective only before Fall 2018)
Public Policy 103/c103**    (also listed as L&S C180U) Wealth & Poverty (valid elective only before Fall 2019)
UGBA 103** Introduction to Finance (valid elective only before Fall 2013)

Additional UGBA 103 Policy

As of summer 2013, students who take Econ 136, UGBA 103, and/or Engin 120 will receive Economic elective credit only for the first course completed.  The university and the department will not give credit to students who take Econ 136 after UGBA 103.


** Courses outside the department.

A maximum of two approved upper division courses (including the macro and micro theory courses) may be taken outside the department towards upper division major requirements. This includes courses transferred to UC Berkeley, courses taken through EAP, at summer school elsewhere, and the pre-approved courses offered at UC Berkeley through other departments (Business, History, Legal Studies, etc.). For more information, please contact the Economics Undergraduate Advisor. Courses officially cross-listed with upper-division Economics courses do not count toward the two course maximum. 


If you have taken an Economics course at another university and wish to have it considered for major credit, please fill out the course equivalency request form. If the course is a mathematics or statistic prerequisite that has been taken at another four-year university, those courses will be evaluated by the Mathematics and Statistics Departments.  A maximum of two upper-division courses offered outside of the department may be accepted.